A common question many parents ask is at what age their child should be tying their own shoelaces? The following article by Therapy Focus’s Durham Road School Team, offers practical strategies for assisting children with this important developmental stage.
A variety of factors influence a child’s capacity to tie their shoes, including: exposure, hand dominance, attention, concentration and fine motor development. The table below provides approximate age guidelines for the stages of shoelace tying:
|Unties knot||2 years|
|Can pull the laces tight||3 years|
|Ties a knot||4 years|
|Ties a bow||6/6.5 years|
(Source: Activity of Daily Living Checklist)
It can be difficult to teach an unmotivated child to tie their shoelaces. Try to keep it fun and practise for short periods of time throughout the day. If your child is really struggling to tie their laces, focus on activities that develop their fine motor skills before progressing to the more complex task of tying laces.
These activities may include:
Complete play activities by first using both hands together, then progress to use hands separately to perform different movements. For example, catching balls, rolling play doh, tearing paper, pouring, drawing, threading.
Encourage your child to use the small muscles of the hands, fingers and wrist. Some fine motor activities to practice this are finger painting, using pegs, squeezing water sprayers, paper crumpling, drawing and cutting.
Help your child improve their hand eye co-ordination through activities such as throwing and catching, cutting along a line, colouring in, completing a maze worksheet or using an etch-a-sketch.
Many children find it difficult to tie their shoelaces, so the following helpful hints may be useful. You may also like to speak to an Occupational Therapist or your Key Worker for further assistance.
Helpful tips when teaching your child to tie their laces:
Ask your child to practice threading their laces through the holes of their shoe or through fun activities such as animal lace cards.
Make sure the shoelaces are long enough to pull the bow through.
Colour in one side of the shoelace to help your child distinguish between the sides of the laces. You could also use two different coloured laces (cut two laces and tie them together) so your child can easily see which colour is on top.
Tie your own shoelaces at the same time whilst talking through the steps.
Determine which shoelace tying method best suits your child. The method below is good for children who have difficulty pinching both sides at the same time as your child only has to make one bunny ear and pull the other lace around the back.
The most common method of shoelace tying is the ‘Bunny Ears’ method, which involves making two loops, crossing the loops, threading one side through, then pulling tight.
Place dots on the laces to show your child where to position their hands and how long they need to make the loops.
Place the shoe or a practice board in front of your child on their lap, or a table. It is much harder to start tying when the shoe is on your child’s foot, so starting in an easier position is the first step.
Use stiffer laces for practicing. This helps to hold the loop in place whilst your child is learning.
Ribbon with wire in it works a treat!
Take advantage of any opportunity to practice tying – i.e. wrapping presents and tying ribbon, tying ribbons in hair of other people or dolls, tying apron strings before cooking.
The most important tip is to allow your child to experience success. In shoelace tying, the first part is the easiest, so teach your child to cross the laces over and then pull tight, or alternatively start them off yourself and let them do the last step so they feel successful. Once they have mastered this, move onto the next step. With increased confidence, your child will continue to improve and be more motivated to practice.
Helpful resources include:
Red lace, Yellow Lace. Mike Casey and Judith Herbst (1996). A rhyming story with a step by step guide to tying shoelaces.
One Two Tie Your Shoes! Lorraine Gregory (2010). Learn to tie shoelaces using a familiar song with different words
There are also numerous instructional YouTube videos available which explain shoelace tying in a fun and entertaining manner.